45th Infantry Regiment "Romanian" (Czechoslovak Army)
HQ Chust - Ruthenia
The Year 1646 during the reign of Georgius I Rakoczi, meant in developing countries new stage. Sárospatak died in 1648 Georgius I Rákóczi and his successor, Georgius II. in the 1650 he invited Ján Amos Comenius to build "pansophic school." In the Šaris (Blatnom) Patak on the border of the Slovak Carpathian Ruthenia was Ján Amos Comenius devoted himself to teaching and research activities (draw on the experiences of Hungaria and experience). The last bishop of the Unity of Brethren Ján Amos Comenius wrote that "Orbis pictus" and the book "Learning by Doing" (Schola ludus). In the Saris Potok he served four years. September 10, 1919 became the Carpathian Ruthenia to the agreement of Saint-Germain part of Czechoslovakia, Uzhorod its capital. Czechoslovakia built from oblivion Uzhgorod modern city with a growing economy. Government spending in Carpathian Rus was six times the tax revenues from this area. Given the state had Čs. Republic of challenges to fulfill its autonomy.
Regional Office in the Uzhgorod. In the year 1928 the airport was built in Uzhhorod, airplane Aero A-38 was for eight passengers, CSA flew him to the Prague-Brno-Bratislava-Košice-Uzhgorod-Cluj. In 1932 he joined the military attaché in Bucharest former legionnaire Lt. colonel GS Heliodor Píka.
After the failure of the so-called the Eastern Lokarno Czechoslovakia signed a treaty of 16.5.1935 with the Soviet Union linked to the France-Soviet treaty. Following 01.09.1936 CSA and Aeroflot launched the most modern aircraft
Airspeed AS6 Envoy for six passengers scheduled air services on the route Prague - Uzhgorod - Kluj - Iasi - Kiev - Moscow Brjansk-. So-called Russian Express flew 2500 km 10 hours. In 1935 the brigade general Jozef Oleg Svátek appointed Commander of the 12th Infantry Division in Uzhgorod. The intelligence officer of the 10th Border Guard Battalion was Bedřich Pokorný until 1936. The division is in a state of emergency 23/09/1938 become a 42nd Frontier Area with the scope of Slánske vrchy to the Romanian border. Subject to the command of III. Army ,,Stefanik", had the task of defense of Slovakia and Ruthenia in order to maintain a connection with the Little Entente ally Romania. Since the second half of the 30 years to September 1938 he was director of the police in Khust lieutenant cavalry in reserve Juraj Bílej (*12.25.1904 Oliňovo district Svaljava †23.01.1945 Hrabkov district. Prešov). since 23.09.1938 to 17.11.1938 worked as an intelligence officer
2nd Department Staff 42nd Border Areas (code name Karol) HQ Uzhgorod. To a state of emergency Headquarters 12th Infantry Division Headquarters and crew. After reorganization in the years 1936-1938, Bedřich Pokorný was appointed as a military intelligence officer at the PAÚ (forward office agency) in Michalovce. In 1938 he was assigned as head of PAÚ "Rudolf" in Košice with a focus on Hungary.
After the Munich Agreement 9/30/1938 aircraft Aero A-38 OK-ULF (F-AJLF CIDNA, then L-BACE CSA in 1934, it sold the Aero Club of Prague MLL) throwing leaflets in the area Krupina, Lovinobaňa, Rimavská Sobota, Jelšava, Tisovec, Košice, Trebišov, Uzhgorod.
10th Infantry Division HQ in Krupina, Commander brig. general Rudolf Hošek, backup III. Army consisted of 3th Fast Division (in the yaer 1939 18th squadron commander lieutenant cavalry in reserve Aladár II. Ondrejkovič, grandson of the noble Lady Anna Sandor de Slavnicza) and the 11th Infantry Division. On 10/05/1938 swarm observation aircraft Letov Š-328 squadron 13 from the airport Uzhgorod attacked the railway station Boržava the formation of armed civilians, penetrated from behind the Hungarian border.
On days 6 to 9 October 1938, an attempt was made to occupy Berehovo and Mukachevo Hungarian armed groups Szabadcsapatok and Rongyos Gárda to fill the border area. Field Squadron 73 of Wing II./6 arrived from Pardubice to airport Spišská Nová Ves 12 October 1938 On 13.10.1938 swarm observation aircraft Letov Š-328 of 13 squadron attacked the terrorists in a forest Aszas near the Berehovo. Also hit three Čs. tanks. One group, about the size of a company to try to break the position of the Čs. army and squish into Hungary. The main group of soldiers was Battalion III/ 45, Battalion II/36, mixed speh Section HO 42 men and 37 Battalion SOS ,,Uzhgorod" surrounded 14.10.1938 and after overflights Squadron 13, airstrike and Shoden bombs abandoned by the village Šalanky next the Berehovo. Captivity was also 8 officers, among them one of the commanders of the terrorists captain Ernst Baron Berzewitz. individuals and small groups managed to escape. Loot unleashed several cars (259 rifles, 14 machine-gun pistols, 38,000 rounds of rifle cartridges and 4,000 others). captivity was 339 militia and placed in strength Palanok in Mukachevo, 28 and 29 October were taken to the Ilava. part of terrorists ran north to the Polish border, retreat south to Hungary they were cut off. part only managed to get to Poland. Ku clashes occurred even at Hate and Fornost. Loot increased by 60 rifles.
Mixed Dragoons reconnaissance troop 10 when taking up the position. 10th Dragoon Regiment, HQ in the Equestrian barracks in Mukachevo. District Chief Dr. Aladár Ondrejkovič in 1936-38 directly involved in Zlaté Moravce, in the years 1938-39 in the Prešov for the compilation units State Defense Guard SOS members of departmental gendarmerie, Finance Guard, State Police and military reservists residing around the expected deployment. Battalion SOS 32/Košice (Prešov). Political districts: Gelnica, Košice, Košice-rural, Moldava nad Bodvou. Commander: Lt. Colonel Jaromír Libánský (from 32nd infantry regiment) from February 15, 1939 Major Václav Tichna (from 14en infantry regiment). Condition: 616 men (120 gendarmes, 180 policemen, 177 members of the financial guard, 139 troop surge). Losses: Superintendent František Blecha (12 November Hirn; the hospitals and day), superintendent Josef Hrdina (December 19 Slanec). Battalion SOS 34/Sprišská Nová Ves. Political districts: Bardejov, Giraltovce, Kežmarok, Levoča, kindom, Poprad, Prešov, Sabinov, Spišská Nová Ves, Spisska Stará Ves. Commander: Lt. Colonel Josef Krejči (from 37th infantry regiment). Condition: 473 men (104 gendarmes, 227 members of the financial guard, 142 troop surge).
Splnomocnenec švajčiarskej centrály pre rozvoj hospodárstva (SHS) v Bratislave Dr. Hans Keller sa od jesene 1938 častým hosťom polovačiek na Pokarpatskej Rusi a Východnom Slovensku, nakoľko mu v Rakúsku nacisti bez náhrady odobrali poľovný revir vo Wachau.
In the airport Uzhgorod was deployed from 31 Field Squadron III/1 Wing 1st Aviation Regiment in Hradec Kralové with fighter planes Avia B-534 from 13.10.1938. On field airport Ňaršany flew 04/11/1938. On 10/05/1938 Squadron 13 with ten aircraft Letov S-328 from III/3 Wing 3th Aviation Regiment in Piestany was reassigned from Spišská Nová Ves to the airport Uzhgorod. The day the swarm attacked the railway station Volovec the saboteurs Szabadcsapatok. On 11.10.1938 throwing aircraft Letov Š-328 squadron 13 leaflets in the border triangle Uzhhorod - Košice - Mukachevo.
Provincial public hospital in Berehovo built of Čs. states. After the defeat at the Šalanky next Berehovo about 50 militants managed to flee to Poland via polonium Bukovec and straight at Boržava polonium, which came into combat contact with the top teams SOS finance respicient Josef Stužinský, first finnace resp. Vaclav Záhor and first team. wachmeister Liška composed of members of the gendarmerie and military reinforcements Volovec. Flat on Poloni fell in battle, three policemen and seven terrorists. Hungarian terrorists on October 9 in the number of 15 men blew up a bridge near the village Borzhava and escaped to Poland. The main part of the night began to fall from 9 to 10 October 1938 Group 1 in strength of about 90 armed men under the command of an officer of the Hungarian Army Lieutenant József Prem before midnight crossed the border near the village of Tarpa. Attacked the railway station and the fire attacked the approaching train. They shot guide Hosek, captured gendarme wachmeister Jaroslav Šubčík and lieutenant Čs. army passenger on the train. Robbed the passengers\' baggage, part of their fled to Hungary. The second part of Borzhava issued northeast into the hills above Berehovo. Persecuted her SOS emergency section with members of the police station Berehovo. Near the village of Velké Mužijevo was shooting in which he was injured and then battered gendarme sergeant Rigan of Berehovo. Hungarian squad was surrounded on October 11 in a plantation forest near the village Drisina south of Mukachevo. 16 was made, or. to 17 of its members. Meanwhile, across the Čs. penetrated Polish border terrorists, throwing into the air rail and road bridges, attacked from backup to finace guard, gendarmerie and post offices. The first was killed by terrorists Polish top gendarmerie sergeant Kalčík the volitional. On 22.10.1938 there was an escalation of the conflict, two Hungarian fighters Fiat CR-32 attacked the fire onboard weapons lien airport Minaj south of Uzhgorod. Against the attackers took off from the airport in Uzhgorod swarm of fighters Avia B-534 Field Squadron 31 On 25.10.1938 the west of Berehovo under fire by ground fire fighters swarm Avia B-534 of squadron 31 accompanying Letov Š-328. One Avia B-534 had overshot turn signal and the second overshoot karter engine and catchment tank.
On 29.10.1938 executed from the airport Spišská Nová Ves swarm ultramodern aircraft Avia B-71 (Tupolev SB-2) Field Squadron 73 of II. wing 6th Aviation Regiment years through exhaustive Prešov - Mukachevo - Sevljuš - Kapusany - Kosice - landing, airport Uzhgorod.
Staff Captain spiritual services Violand Pavel Ondrejkovič was from 09.01.1923 after incorporation into the agenda transferred to 45th Infantry Regiment in Khust, where he remained until 31/01/1926. Subsequently, he was transferred to the 19th Infantry Regiment in Mukachevo (ruined castle of Mukachevo in 1927 the Czechoslovak state repaired, set up barracks in it), which acted as chaplain to the regiment 15/06/1936. Also perform the function of chaplain 45th Infantry Regiment subsequently served in Brno, where he was transferred to 3/14/1939 3rd Infantry Division in Presov and appointed to the post of head of pastoral care division. On 01.07.1940 he was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel. clergy. After the Vienna Award in 1938 (2.november) fell Uzhgorod with the south Ruthenia, Mukachevo and Berehovo Horty Hungary.
On 03/11/1938 swarm flew bombing aircraft Avia B-71 (Tupolev SB-2) of squadron 73 the Wing II/6 Commander Lt. Col. air force Jaroslav Neubauer from Uzhgorod back to the airport Spišská Nová Ves.
Aircraft Avia B-71 (Tupolev SB-2) pictured was one squadron of 74 Wing II/6 It was damaged in November 1938 and left the airport Spišská Nová Ves after the departure airport in Hradec Králové. Slovak Air Force, he was transferred to Trenčianske Biskupice and after the repair has taken to the state.
In early November 1938 the team SOS of Chief financial respicient Josef Stužinský be withdrawn from the border down to Volovec. Was merged with the gendarmerie, the team that represented only a gendarmerie sergeant, six military reinforcements and three full-time soldiers. The combined section and formed 20 men. Were accommodated in the hall of the Russian National House of Volovec. Apart from the emergency service was held on the ground patrols on the strength of eight to nine men with a machine gun.
On 11/04/1938 arrived from Prague Ruziň airport to airport Uzhgorod most advanced transport aircraft of Czechoslovak Airlines OK-BAD Savoia-Marchetti SM-73.
Schedule Praha - Uzhgorod. From the airport Uzhgorod 04/11/1938 flew the aircraft Avia Fokker F.IX with an escort of two fighter aircraft Avia B-534 Field Squadron 31.
The airport in Uzhgorod 5 November 1938 and since 5 November 1938 until 16 March 1939 flew to the airport Slatinské Doly octahedral airliners ČSA Avia F VII b / 3m. On 05/11/1938 flew from Uzhgorod Avia Fokker F.IX D-OK AFG with Czechoslovak civilian administration employees and airport personnel. At the retreat on 05/11/1938 at the airport in Uzhgorod soldiers destroyed the six-digit airliner ČSA Letov Š-32 OK-ADC. With a fleet of 13 aircraft observation Letov Š-328 flew from Uzhgorod to field airport Ňaršany.
On 05/11/1938 cargo 3 kg States controlled dangerous radioactive material from the State Hospital in Uzhgorod flew to Prague airliner Czechoslovak State Airlines OK-BAD Savoia-Marchetti SM-73. Berehovo was occupied Hungary in early November 1938 (Hungarian occupation of the southern part of Carpathian Ruthenia was carried out on 5 to 10.11.1938). Czechoslovak Defender (Guard battalion of national defense and of Uzhgorod 36th Infantry Regiment) retreated to a new state border. After the Vienna Award was also Kosice became part of Hungary. The strategic situation of the Czechoslovak Republic was losing railways and roads deteriorated significantly, remained the only northern highway Stakčín - Perečín - Svaljava. .
Svaljava. After the Vienna Award to brigade general Svátek moved with his crew from Uzhgorod to the Svaljava. To the city was translated too battalion I/36.
Barracks of Čs. army in Mukachevo in 1938 Since October 1938, was organized air connection between Bratislava and Khust. Provide him Squadron 12,13, 15 and 16 observation aircraft Letov Š-328. On 27.10.1938 crashed in fog near the village Rakovec aircraft Letov Š-328.153 the courier summer Uzhhorod - Košice - Zvolen. The crew of the pilot. serg. Josef Jaroš and observer serg. asp. Karel Pátek died. Lieutenant. air. force Mikuláš Guljanič (*09.12.1907 Zareča †22.06.1992 Prague) was in November 1938 Field Squadron 13 detached from Uzhgorod to Ňaršany and the end of the month to Spišská Nová Ves.
Center Ruthenia happened Chust city. Since the loss of Uzhgorod established engineers northeast of Khust field airport Kozílek. After 11.02.1938 in connection with the withdrawal area were deployed infantry regiment 36, Battalion III/36 and the replacement battalion to the city Perečin SV, Battalion I/36 in the city and Svajlava Battalion II/36 Velký Berezný the city. 12th Artillery Regiment and atrilery section I/12 were deployed to Cemerno HQ, its 1st baterry in Nizhny Hrabovec a second battery to Vranov nad Topľou. Artillery section II /12 was deployed to Türich Remet, but his 2nd battery in Nizhny Hrabovec.
On 22 November 1938 the Czechoslovak government declared a de facto autonomy to Ruthenia. In the meantime the autonomy that was guaranteed by the Constitution formal.
On 10.11.1938 the 5:00 o\'clock invaded polish terrorists village Nižné Verecky. They robbed a post office, police station destroyed by grenades and blew up a road bridge towards Podplazie. They captured and dragged to Poland twelve gendarmes, seven soldiers and two members of the financial guard. In the Latorec captured their colleagues reeds. They dragged them to Drohobycz in Galicia. Upon surrender Nižné Verecky issued weapons platoon commander SOS civil servant at the post office, railway, roadmaster and doctor. On the night following the raid pricesovalo to Volovec ten gendarmes from the Czech Republic, they have also been accommodated in the Russian national house. In late November was a Polish terrorists upcoming fall Volovec. On top of Mencia they were blamed four telephone poles, punched and management scattered leaflets written in Czechish. They demanded from the Czechs leaving Ruthenia, otherwise everyone will hanged. Gendarme sergeant Cejp left with ten men to Nižné Verecky find out what is happening. Commander with the rest of the team was from 22.00. in the morning at the ready. Around 02.00 am. is about 7-10 terrorists tried to wade the river Voca compared to Russian national house, but the guards were sighted Ivan Holovko which it announced the captain, he should be arranged. Terrorists finding that the revelation did not dare to cross the river. At the time, it started partial evacuation secret property of Czech families from Ruthenia to the Czech Republic. They gave rise to the policemen who returned to Ruthenia of concentration and training in the Bohemia.
Polish terrorists attacked a guard dove on the Polish border in Sinevir, Torun, Príslop and Studená. Destroyed the railway bridge kilometer from the station Volovets to Zaňka. Terrorist killed betrayed debris of the bridge, which kept the army. At that time she arrived in Volovec school waiting Provincial gendarme headquarters in Brno, about 60 men, led by Lieutenant Václav Judro. Since then they went into the field of combined patrols in which they were erecting members of the financial guard for knowledge of circumstances as guides. Section had two trucks to quickly carry the team on endangered sites in Rybnitsa Volovec. The commander of the financial guard rode with Lieutenant Judro night-defense missions, for example to overflow Rozsypal tourist cottages in Skotarsk and a slump in the police station in the village Huklivá.
In late November 1938 with a fleet of 13 observation aircraft Letov Š-328 to fly from field airport Narsany to airport Spišská Nová Ves.
Since December 1938, Bedřich Pokorný has worked at the PAÚ in Prešov under the control of the Prešov District Chief Dr. Aladár I. Ondrejkovič.
In early December 1938 it was at 11.00. the slump in the neighboring department of financial Skotarský guards. Barracks department terrorists threw two hand grenades and scored from light machine guns in the kitchen cupboard colleague Chief Financial respicient Kaspar. It is necessary to point out that had already arrived in Volovec first instruction of the battalion under the command of Colonel Poklop of Mílovice. Nepodarené forfeiture barracks of the financial guard Skotarský was the last act of terrorists. They were broadcast in the field of combined patrolling troops and gendarmerie finances as a guide. Gendarme emergency Section of ox becomes thin odvelovaním individual gendarmes mostly on the Hungarian border.
In December 1938 he was a swarm of observation aircraft Letov S-328 from 13 Field Squadron transferred from the airport Spišská Nová Ves to airport Slatinské Doly.
From December 27, 1938 penetrated reports that Hungary preparatory actions for connecting Ruthenia. Consequently, it has been ordered sharpened emergency SOS units and battalion commander I./36 Staff Captain. Bohumír Marik. On 06.01.1939 the demarcation line was a firefight from 4:00 am. to 16.30., when the liaison officers stopped. On the Hungarian side it was attended troops and armed civilians and Czechoslovak side SOS units and army.
The fighting also affected the Armoured Force barracks in Great Sevljuš, t. j. Company 1/3 armored car battalion of light tanks I./3 sends 36th Infantry Regiment during the incident were loss - Powdery Mildew: development. Ilko Kolačuk 1./36. Company * Rostoka district. Rachov; development. Francis Vystrčil 1./36. Company * Banov district. Uh. Brod; development. Antonín Kopeček 2./36. Company * Hovorany district. Hodonin; respectively. Finance Guard battalion Josef Tyšer SOS *1891, Jindrichuv Hradec. Wounded succumbed to development. Francis Bacon 2./36. Company *Holasovice district. Opava. Were wounded development. Josef Cervenka 1./36. Company *Ostravice district. firm; development. Alois Čižmář 1./36. Company *Trebovice district. Hlučín; respectively. fin. Guard Anthony Kohel battalion SOS. Captured were development. Alois Polomíček 1./36. Company; development. He closed Alois 1./36. Company; development. Vojtěch Fischer 1./36. Company; development. Josef Ondrušek 2./36. Company; serg. Ondrej Motil 2./36. Company. He fell into the hands of the Hungarians armored car Tatra model. 30, which is the way to ice up slipping into a ditch and had to be abandoned. The same long black coats kožušinové as a member of SOS in an image used in winter service and captains and helmsmen ČSPD n.p. until 1989.
District Chief Dr. Aladár Ondrejkovič from 1936 to 1939, directly involved in Zlaté Moravce and since 1939 in Prešov on the compilation units State Defense Guard SOS members of the departmental gendarmerie, financial guard, national police and military reservists residing around the expected deployment.
SOS elite armed forces of the Czechoslovak state in exercises in southern Slovakia in 1937. SOS Battalion 28 / Nové Zámkye (Nitra). Political districts: Stará Dala, Hlohovec, Komarno, Zlate Moravce, Nitra, Parkáň, Piestany, Sala, Vrable, Nové Zámky. Commander: Lt-Col. Karel Jahelka (Infantry Regiment 12). Status: 1012 men (184 gendarmes, 48 policemen, 227 members of the financial guard, 553 men troop surge).
On 7 January 1939 the so-called. Mukachevo incident left the first motorized instructional battalion of the Volovec to the Činaďovo to the Hungarian border to defend it. The rest of January 1939 has passed calmly. Finance, together with the gendarmerie patrol in the field by 15 February 1939. That day was canceled state border guard SOS units on the Polish border Ruthenia. Gendarmerie except five, permanently assigned local station, was to detach the Hungarian border to Podhorany as backup company SOS Berehovo. Financial Guard began on February 16 normal departmental service.
District Chief of Prešov Dr. Aladár I. Ondrejkovič calls on days 20 to 22 Feb. 1939 by the President of the Slovak autonomous government which has been Dr. Jozef Tiso help border village, the construction of railway Prešov - Strážske, regulation Torysa river basin, improving the transport system in east Šariš and modification of land registers. On 21 February 1939 the General Assembly of Matica Slovakia was elected new chairman Dr. Aladár Ondrejkovič, the district chief. On 23 February 1939 he was on fire General Assembly OHJ in Prešov elected District Commander Dr. Aladár Ondrejkovič.
Bedřich Pokorný worked at PAÚ Prešov until March 1939, then he traveled to the Brno.
On 6 and 15 March 1939 President of the Autonomous Government, the Minister of Education and Justice: Augustin Voloshin, Minister of Interior, Finance and Transport: Army General Lev Prchala, Minister for Agriculture, public works, health, industry, commerce and trade: Stefan Kločurak. Minister Army General Lev Prchala ordered the 12 - 13 March 1939 to arrest the leaders of the organization who Carpathian Síč on intelligence-prepared coup. On 12 March 1939, based on preliminary discussions it held a meeting with representatives of the Hungarian with Adolf Hitler to support their plans for the occupation of Ruthenia. Already on March 13 was Czechoslovak ambassador handed over the note in which his country was asked to withdraw Ruthenia.
On the night of 13 to 14 March 1939 organized by members of the Abwehr German consulate in Hust through paramilitary organization Carpathian months (leader Dmytro Klempuš) unsuccessful attempt treasonable coup. Early in the morning men battalion SOS 38/Khust (commander Colonel Antonín Zeman, 448 men) and the Soldiers Battalion I/45 suppressed the uprising of Ukrainian nationalists in Hust, who coordinated the Berlin headquarters of the Abwehr with the declaration of the Slovak State, occupied the Moravian Ostrava Wehrmacht and attack regular Hungarian army to Carpathian Ruthenia during the course of the day.
NImages of Khust is Koruna hotel, it housed the headquarters of the paramilitary organization Carpathian month. Right of the image may be damaged by gunfire hotel building Infantry Regiment soldiers and 45 members of the battalion SOS 38 / Khust early morning 14.03.1939.
March 14 morning, in coordination Abwehr units crossed the Hungarian border and has applied for Svaliava and north. Their procedure was MS. the military and members of SOS Battalion 38 / Khust stopped. Hungarian army units intended for occupation of Ruthenia had 50,000 soldiers. Filling launched on 14.03.1939 4:30 pm. the attack on the village Podmonastyr so. the central direction from Mukachevo to Svaliava. On 14.03.1939 the airport Slatinské Mines flew one flight S-328 from 13 Field Squadron swarm to Slovakia with the message.
The Romanian government has responded. Little Entente commitments, observing it in the early hours Hungary ordered the mobilization of the attack three years of army reserve. Yet the next day boarded Romanian troops to the Romanian-Hungarian border, which has previously focused Romanian Army command 40,000 soldiers.
In the afternoon, 14 March 1939 Slovak parliament declared an independent Slovak state. Have afternoon Wehrmacht crossed the border and began to occupy Ostrava, then in the early morning to extend the procedure to Prague and Brno. Team folded MS. State and Defense Ruthenia lost the sense of an autonomous declaration Ruthenia as an independent state yet that day.
From 15.15. March 14, 1939 Czechoslovak government had knowledge about Wehrmacht occupation of Moravian Ostrava and the declaration of the Slovak State in the afternoon. In the evening, he authorized the Army General (Minister of Interior, Finance and Transport of the Autonomous Government of Carpathian Rusu) Leo fled governance by the gradual evacuation MS. troops and civilians from the territory of Ruthenia. Minister of Interior, Finance and Transport of the Autonomous Government of Carpathian Ruthenia was taketh command of MS. units in Ruthenia, but instructed him Brig. gen. Joseph Oleg holidays. In the early hours of 15.03.1939 he left Ruthenia and traveled to Slovakia, so in March 1939 drove the defense Ruthenia commander of the 12th Infantry Division Brig. gen. Oleg Day. He was in the beginning of the meeting with the Hungarians provided 8,000 troops, combined platoon of six tanks LT-35 armored cars and several artillery batteries.
At noon on March 15 commander of the 12th Infantry Division Brigadier General Oleg Svátek gave orders to retreat fighting Čs.units: the West (in the area of Uzhgorod -
- Velký Berezný) and middle groups (in the area Svaliava - Irshava - Chust) moving to Slovakia, isolated Eastern group (in space Chust - Rach) crossing to Romania. Hungarian troops early in the morning on March 14, 1939 began occupation of Ruthenia (in coordination with staffing Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia Wehrmacht in the evening that day) towards Khust. Divisional Headquarters of General Oleg Svátek has shifted from midday 15 March Svaljava to Perečin near the Slovak border. Hungarian troops were stopped at Svajlava antiatack of Battalion II/45 battalion and battalion SOS 38/Khust. And other units of the 12th Infantry Division commander General Svátek them to resist. Čs. troops managed to consolidate the defensive 10 km from Uzhgorod in the Gorge at Voročov and stabilize an important node before Perečin. Hungarians occupation started on 03/14/1939 4:30 PM. the attack on the village Podmonastyr so. the central direction from Mukachevo to Svaljava River Valley Latorica. Resistance stood platoon SOS top respicient financial Dostálek guards stationed at the monastery Vasiliánov. Her 30 men blocked six and a half hours from the monastery on the banks of the river Latorica procedure enemy battalion deployment to the Hungarian gross artillery. It broke down its thick walls. In order to retreat platoon had fallen except two SOS number wounded, which are moved march through the snowy forests of Vihorlat Mountains 30 km distant Perečin.
After the conquest of the monastery and the village Podmonastyr Hungarian brigade progressed slowly north through the valley of the river Latorica.
Evening at Činadevo was stopped the attack troop 3rd Battalion I/36th Pictured assigned to a lorry park Corps automobile Walter PN. Since morning, the fighting and the reed Mukachevo district where the crew battalion defended the process forward. Two days later he retreated to the mountains and crossing snow-covered mountain massif Vihorlat moved to Perečín. Intensely fought Goronda in the cemetery and at the railway station where the fighting involved several Cs. railroaders. Fighting was also Stabričov, the southernmost headland middle of the queue. The fighting in Goronda striker hit the side of the Marauders Szabadczapatok. Evening platoon SOS with finance respicient Joseph refoulement retreated across the river Latorica to the next line of defense. After receiving the order to retreat Brig. general Oleg Svátek gave the order status at Voročov was hindered not appoint the morning on March 17 and was thus allowed the connection of the remaining Czechoslovak military units in central and western groups and their retreat to Slovakia. Defense units are formed alongside SOS Battalion I / 36, he commanded him staff captain. Bohumír Marik. Czechoslovak soldiers had 03.15 overpowered before gradually move westward to Slovakia, where they arrived on the night of 16 on 17.03.1939. Infantry Regiment 36 (SV Svaliava, Perečín) and fitness unit retreated after fighting rear-guard units to Slovakia with SOS (women, young children and old men retreated SOS in the snow drifts through the mountains to Perečín who defended the infantry regiment 36). In combat operations battalion SOS 37 / Big Berezný (Lt. Commander. Fancl Ota, 1022 men) were killed in the March battle with the Hungarians five members of SOS, two departmental policemen and three soldiers battalion III / 36 SOS assigned as reinforcements. respectively. fin. Guard John Chrástecký († March 14, Uzhgorod-shooting range), šstrážm. state. Police Methoděj Gross († March 14, Uzhgorod-shooting range), wachmeister Karel Seifert († March 14 Uzhorod airport) des. pres. Services Pavol Tóth * Infantry Regiment. 36 († March 14 Uzhorod airport) troops pres. Emil Mrázek services *, infanterie regoment 36 († March 14 Uzhorod airport) troops pres. sl. Francis Nuthatch *, p. pl. 36 († March 14, Uzhgorod-airport), the gendarme exp. sergant Karel Moravec * (March 14 Kolčino; † the day hospital Mukachevo), the gendarme exp. závodčí Josef Vápeník * (March 14 Podhorany † March 15 Mukachevo hospital) stand guard. pol. Ivan Tyuška († March 14 Kolčino), the trial of the gendarme závodčí Charles Cook († March 15 Romočevice, martyred). From Perečín over contested Corridor trains were evacuated thousands of civilians in Slovakia. The fighting also affected the second part priezvedného Section, together with a company of tanks 3rd Regiment attacking chariots in Martin and squad cannons KPÚV. Withdrew into Humenné 18 March 1939. The battalion III / 36 had nine soldiers killed in the valley Latorice. Defensive position at Voročov Czechoslovak units were able to keep the early morning hours of March 18 MS. soldiers of the 12th Infantry Division under the command of Brig. gen. O. holidays, which as a whole is built to resist invaders left after 82 hours of continuous fighting as the last organized unit MS. Army Ruthenia. Support from Slovakia who has MS. units in Ruthenia received amounted platoon of six tanks Skoda vz 35 and two trucks with supplies and anti-tank cannon attached.
Velká Sevljuš. Authors father had in 1953 the same Tatra 57A standing outside. This fourteenth day of March 1939 came from the station to the barracks Velká Sevljuš combined company attacking chariots.
two tanks LT vz. 35 (prototype Škoda 13620 and 13903 Army tank), returned with demonstrations by Škoda SpA in the Soviet Union over Romania with corporate Montero. Tank 13903 was for this purpose by the Czechoslovak army borrowed. Company officers seized tanks and qualify for state. Installers are offered to join with them in fights. Both tanks were used in the counterattack on the approaches to Svaljava at Fančíkov, where one of them (13,903) hit the Hungarian anti-tank gun. The driver, Škoda fitter fell. Spent abandoned tank was captured by the opponent. Some Guard units defending the so-called national defense. the median direction they can not be downloaded from Slovakia and retreated in an easterly direction, where the defending battalions I / 45 and II / 45 Infantry Regiment 45 (regimental commander was Lieutenant Colonel Francis Václavek) and Section III / 12 Artillery Regiment 12. These units retreated from Khust through
Ťačov to the border with Romania, which opened the border bridge over the river Tisza.
Good transport aircraft for five passengers Aero A-OK 35.3-AUC to serve the needs of the autonomous government of Ruthenia. The dissolution of Czechoslovakia is happened from the airport Slatinské Doly to fly to Prague.
Building Czechoslovak state grammar school in Hust, where the session in the gym 03.15.1939 approved the Landtag performance Ruthenia from Čs. Republic. The new state already folded 03.18.1939, when under the protection of soldiers of Infantry regiment 45, the ,,Romanian "its president and prime minister Dr. Augustin Voloshin crossed the Romanian border.
In the picture building damaged in the fighting of Sičs in Chust and Hungarian troops after the withdrawal of the last Czechoslovak units.
Soldiers Infantry Regiment 45 ,, Romania \'(SV Chust, Lt. Commander. Luck. Francis Václavek) in the rear-guard battle with Ukrainian separatists and the Hungarian army was moved from March 16, 1939 with members Stos State Police and the Financial Guard in Romania, covering the evacuation of the civilian population and president Dr. Ruthenia Augustin Voloshin. before the attacks coincided evacuation column of air Letov s-328 with the pilot of the. asp. J. Mikulecký and observers lieutenant. V. bat. Khust March 16 during the day under the protection of troops completed the assembly of members of Čs. gendarmerie No. police, financial guard and auxiliary troops battalion SOS from stations and positions outside the city. they were intended direction of retreat Sekernica, Bustin, grand, Romanian border village on Sighet. Part of the members of SOS, gendarmes No. police and members of the financial guard, who was moving around on foot was Sekernice and Bustin attacked by gunfire Sič terrorists. in the battle involved MS. armored car and soldiers in trucks that were returning from the Romanian border to Khust. In the meantime Hust also concentrated public civil servants and their family members. They were evacuated from the movable property. Troops evacuated and state property, state archives and cash to your bank. The last soldiers of the defunct Cs. State left Chust evening on March 16, 1939. Subsequently, gradually moved from the defensive positions around the city and crossed the Romanian border in the morning March 17, 1939.
Even 17.3.1939 Letov Š-328 with the pilot corporal aspirant George Mikulecký and observers lieutenant. Vaclav Pálka, attacked the Sičs ostreľujicích civilian evacuation train on the track to Romania. On the same day of field airport Kozílek started last time, pilot Squadron 13 corporal aspirant George Mikulecký and observer lieutenant. Force Václav Pálka airplane flight with S-328 to the coverage of the evacuation columns crossing the bridge over the border river Tisa in Romania to platter. After the exhaustion of fuel landed in a field near Sighetu Marmatiei, the crew handed over the aircraft to the Romanian Air Force and Romanian sergeant came to the airport. In some places, the Hungarians managed process stop for a moment, to which the threat of intervention has helped Romania, an ally of Czechoslovakia. The new state Ruthenia folded 03/18/1939, when under the protection of soldiers Infantry Regiment 45 ,, Romania \'the President and Prime Minister Dr. Augustine Voloshin exceeded the government\'s passenger cars under the R 1 Romanian border. The last soldiers nonexistent state Bočkov defender retreated to Romania 21 March 1939th
Commander and intelligence officers Infantry Regiment 45 officers and II. Division 12 Division staff waited on the border of Czechoslovak military attaché in Bucharest Otakar Buda, senior officers of the General Staff of the Romanian Army and residents SSI (Commander Mihail Moruzova). Romanian intelligence (SSI Serviciului Secret of information militar al României) had a great interest in the experience of the Hungarian army and detailed českosovenských heard members of the armed forces. She acted the same time correctly. Upon arrival in Bucharest with them they contacted a resident of Second Bureau de l\'Etat-Major General Maurice Negre resident British intelligence SOE Alfred de Chastelain.
Once downloaded to Romania in March 1939 Czechoslovakia. units handed over the last ally among other armored vehicles 3 armored vehicles OA vz.27. Weapons and military equipment handed over to the Romanian Army 14 armored vehicles. Of the units attacking chariots was a third platoon of armored vehicles of the battalions of light tanks I / third Formed backup Infantry Regiment 45. Romanians took nine light armored vehicles OA model 30 (Tatra T-72) č.13.330, 13.380, 13.382, 13.386, 13.387, 13.389, 13.390, 13.392, 13.395, and three heavy armored cars OA pattern 27 (Skoda PA-I) č.13.339 (č.rumunskej army IX N-202), and č.13.349 č.13.352 (No in romanian army N-IX 215). Taken over by light tanks LT 35 (prototype Skoda č.13620) used a combined company of attacking chariots in battles in Sevljuš at Fačíkov returning from the demonstration trials in the USSR, which was in the possession of the manufacturer. No. 35 Lt. tank. 13620 Romanian army later returned as a private property company Skoda SpA 13352
Khust Infantry Regiment 45 "Romania" \'was 12 fallen soldiers. SOS Battalion 38/Khust Lt. Commander Lt. colonel Antonín Zeman relevant to Infantry Regiment 45 had fallen 3 - respicient finance guards Karol Andraško †14 March 1939 Príslop, wachmeister gendarmerie Vaclav Fort †16 March Sekernica, chief financial officers respicient Miroslav Kocourek †16 March Bustino.
SOS Battalion 37 / Berezný Big 10 had fallen. Both SOS Battalion 30 were wounded by army 120 men.
Perečín city on the river Uh 10 km from the Slovak border where the earth is moved at noon 15.03.1939 Divisional Headquarters of General Oleg Svátek from Svaljava.
Since October, the CSA flight Prague - Bratislava - Ves - Slatinské Doly (until November 1938 Uzhgorod) operated a transport aircraft Avia F VII b / 3m (Altered 17 local type Avia F IX D with a stopover in Piestany), continued through Kluj to Bucharest. Air connection to be used intensively officers 16.03.1939 II. Department headquarters and SSI officers. Intensive been used by the government and representatives of the industrial and banking circles of the Czechoslovak Republic and the Kingdom of Romania. At the airport operate 20 Air Weather Station (SV Slatinské Doly), Air rádiolelegrafická station 22 (SV Slatinské Doly) 5 Aviation Regiment and the Air radio duties station 15 (SV Slatinské Doly) Aviation Regiment 6th
Very comfortable interior seventeen seater airplane ČSA Avia F IX D.
From the airport Slatinské Doly conducted regular CSA which four aircraft launched on 17.03.1939 through the airport Spišská Nová Ves and Bratislava to Prague.
On 16.03.1939 took place evacuation of a large part of Czechoslovakia. Units from Russia. On 18.03.1939 in the late evening it completed the Hungarian military occupation of Carpathian Ruthenia, but still hinders section 21/03/1939 Czechoslovak soldiers standing near the Great Bočkov. When the retreat of hard fighting managed to evacuate troops from Ruthenia. Other groups fleeing to the mountains.
Heavy armored cars OA vz 27 number 13.339 by attacking chariots third company, regiment assault chariot 3 Czechoslovak Army already under the new number N-IX 202 in service in the Romanian royal army on the Hungarian border.
From Romania were Czechoslovak defender escorted the train to the former Yugoslavia and through Austria in the occupied country, and Slovakia. Part went to France. New Slovak army took to the state of Czechoslovak officers and soldiers (of Czech origin if you qualify) Rusyn origin who were concerned to Carpathian Ruthenia where they have applied (major cavalry Jaroslav Kmicikievič, First Lieutenant cavalry Juraj Bílej, First Lieutenant Air Mikuláš Guljanič and others).
One of the more enlightened and experienced officials Regional Office in Bratislava, Slovakia was the District Chief Dr. Aladar Ondrejkovič. In connection with the Munich Agreement has therefore been translated from Zlate Moravce (where he was subject to residence of the President Czechoslovak Republic in Topolčianky) to Presov with the task of organizing the district dislocation and the work of national authorities which the Czech-Slovak Republic forced to evacuate from Kosice, parts of eastern Slovakia and Carpathian Russia. In Presov was the District Chief Dr. A. Ondrejkovič forced to face a sizeable group of armed marauders who in the territory of the district of Poland and penetrated part of the territory occupied Hungary. Even more working and organizational burden was exposed Dr. A. Ondrejkovič after 14 March 1939 when the district Prešov found himself in a war zone in the context of fighting troops (and their evacuation with the authorities and civilian persons) non-existent Czechoslovakia. State Ruthenia to the Hungarian army, which have already occurred on March 22 the territory of Slovakia.
Air Force First Lieutenant Nicholas Guljanič (* 09.12.1907 Zariča † 22.06.1992 Praha) was only returned to the airport Spišská Nová Ves with airplane flight S-328 from the airport bombings in Uzhgorod 24.03.1939. They were attended by two swarms of aircraft Letov S-328 and Avia B 534 squadrons of 12 and 45 from the airport Spišská Nová Ves.
Finally Samaritans courses and exams held in the Black Eagles in Prešov from 28.8 to 09.24.1939 with the participation of 28 men and 175 women. Front row from left: Police Captain Kováč, the East Division commander Colonel General Staff Augustin Malár (*07.18.1894 †Reitern DD.MM.1945 Concentration Camp Flossenburg), lieutenant of Czechoslovak legions in Italy until 1918, when announcing Slovak autonomy became commander of VI . Army Corps and commanded him all the time fighting with Hungary in East Slovakia, Minister of National Defence, General 1st Class Ferdinand Čatloš (captain of Czechoslovak legions in Russia, returned home 12 Setember 1920), the district chief and commander of the Firemen in the District No.5 Prešov Dr. Aladár I. Ondrejkovič and District Samaritans physician and chairman of the Department of the Red Cross in Prešov Dr. Anton Frič.
Even refugees from Ruthenia absorbed into its bowels dynamic Romanian city Bucharest
In the left resident of France Deuxième Bureau de l \' Etat - Major General in Bucharest Maurice Negre (the situation in Romania has changed the abdication of King Carol II and the murder of the chief SSI Mihal Moruzov on the second Vienna Arbitration), Maria Tanase and Gheorghe Dinu. Maria Tanase concerts in Istanbul (The local residency II, Division Chief of Staff Čs Army cooperated from SOE) in Ankara before the President of the Republic of Turkey Gen. Mustafa Ismet Inonu, and here in March and April 1941, the delegation met the chief SSI Eugen Cristescu well as residents SOE Alfred de Chastelain. She recognized him from his tenure in Romania as director of the oil company. According to witnesses after 1939 searched Čs military people who for various reasons find themselves in Romania in Bucharest nightlife contact person in SIS. After 1939, activity towards the Slovak military and contact person activated the SIS. Among them were Slovak ambassador in Yugoslavia and Romania Dr Ivan Milecz, as well as employees of Slovak Dunajplavba.
Probably no singer in Romania reached the admiration of the whole society as Maria Tanase. Rumors of her alleged lover, including those of Prime Minister Armand Calinescu and chief SIS Eugen Cristescu anyone uninterested.
Resident SOE Lt.Col. Alfred George Gardyne de Chastelain and his wife Marion Elisabeth
With dealers French nationals working for the Second Bureau de l \'Etat-Major General in the years 1941-44 came into contact in the company Telefunken AG Bratislava Grösslingova No.65 and Miss Elizabeth Ličková, since spring 1944 the wife of First lieutenant aut. Aladár Ondrejkovič family who had family ties to the highest social circles in Slovakiadealers French nationals working for the Second Bureau de l \' Etat - Major General in the years 1941-44 came into contact in the company Telefunken AG Bratislava branch and Miss Elizabeth Ličko.
Od októbra 1939 sa stal tajomník Švajčiarskej obchodnej komory vo Viedni Dr. Hans Keller splnomocnenec Švajčiarskej centrály pre rozvoj hospodárstva (SHS) v Bratislave. Už od roku 1938 často cestoval služobne aj súkromne na Východné a Stredné Slovensko (aj na Podkarpatskú Rus) a uviedol, že množstvo švajčiarskeho tovaru importovaného v rokoch 1939-1945 do Slovenskej republiky si našlo cestu do vojensky spravovaného Poľska.
Thököly castle in Chust and building housed the Czechoslovak government delegation and headquarters liberated territory. Imre Thokoly (relative Anna Sandor de Szlavnicza, maternal grandfather of the author) is characterized by a boy diligence and talent while studying at the Evangelical College in Prešov. As a thirteen declaimed in Latin on each topic. He completed his studies in Transylvania. The relative comes of Marmaros Count Fraňo Rédey †died childless in 1671, bequeathed his property Chust and Hunyad. ; Source: Eugen Perfeckyj - Carpathian Ruthenia in the XIII.-XV. century. ; Blood relative of District chief from 1938 to 1940 in Prešov, Dr. Aladár I. Ondrejkovič (his grandfather was Stephanus Sandor de Szlavnicza whose mother was Esther Ivánka) Baron Imre Ivanka was the founder of the Red Cross in Hungary. The founding meeting of the Red Cross in Hungary took place on 16 May 1881 in Budapest. On May 17 there was a merger female league with a newly established organization the Red Cross, Baron Ivanka became her manager. It was among the initiators of the construction of the hospital of the Red Cross for the purpose of training of professional and voluntary nurses). From 28.10.1944 worked in Chust Czechoslovak government delegate Minister František Němec and General Antonin Hasal. The Soviet command them banned maintain radio contact with president Edward Benes in London. Nevertheless, the government in exile to receive information on the Soviet blackmail and terror. Credit for this should radios codenamed Vladislav. Serving it skydiver, an expert in telegraphy captain Josef Süsser and diplomat, former intelligence officer of the Czechoslovak Infantry Battalion 11 - East in Syria, Lieutenant reservists František Krucký.
Ilona Zrínyi (Jelena Zrinski) *1643 Ozalj, Croatia †1703 Nicomedia, Ottoman Empire. In 1666 went to Ferenc I. Rákoczi. Had with him three children: Georgius (died as a child), Juliana and known Ferencz II Rákóczi. After her husband\'s death followed the report of the Rákóczi estates Regec, Makovica and Mukachevo. In 1682 she married the leader of the Habsburg uprising Imre Thököly.
Ilona Zrínyi joined the uprising and insurgent bastion of defense of the castle Makovica in the Zborov. Famous for the defense of the castle Mukachevo. She fought him before the imperial army for three years. After the betrayal and when outnumbered 14/10/1688 castle was conquered and razed. Was interned in a Uršulin monastery in Vienna. After three years it Imre Thokoly exchange for captured General Donat Heissler. She lived 12 years with her husband in the Turkish exile until his death.
She was buried in the French lazarist church of Saint Benoit in Galata of district Istanbul. Her remains in 1906 was transferred to Kosice. He is buried with his son Ferenc II Rákóczi in the crypt of the Cathedral of St. Elizabeth.
The castle and manor Tematín monarch gave in 1638 to advance Joanes Rottal and siblings. They were in a relationship with a family Sandor de Szlavnicza despite Catherine Rottal, wife of Ferencz I. Sandor de Szlavnicza. Joanes Jacob Rottal released part of the property Tematín Stephan Csáky and his wife Eve Forgách. Suzane von Rottal share chartered in 1653 to Georgius Berényi of which was also the relatives through family Sandor de Szlavnicza, Szluha and Nyáry. In 1658, the owners of Tematín become genus Bercsényi. Acquired the property in Brunovce. For Tematín was born in 1665 Comes of Uzhgorod Miklós Bercsényi †1725 (captain of Ferencz II Rákóczi) was in family relations with Count Csáky
including by wife Christine Csáky. Stephan Csáky younger holder of Tematín, confiscated property for their participation in the uprising Imre Thököly in 1684 †1705th The document-sharing estate Tematin from 1687 are registered as users of the castle Gasparus IV Sandor de Szlavnicza (Kuruc envoy at the court of the French King Louis XIV) and his wife Erzsebet Thököly. In 1704 it received from a financial contribution to his regiment Simon Forgách. Amount contributed his brother vicecomes of Nitra County Adalbert Sandor de Szlavnicza.
Notes: Act on Autonomy Ruthenia was adopted October 22, 1938. The President of the Autonomous Government A. Voloshin asked parliament to the constitutional name of Ruthenia (or Country Podkarpatoruská) remained unchanged. The media started to appear but the designation Carpathian Ukraine, championed by pro-German Minister of the Autonomous Government of J. Revay ; After November 30, 1938, when the Declaration of Independence Ruthenia published in Sbierke laws Czechoslovakia, marking Carpathian Ukraine was also used in official documents ; 34 teams, Military history of Czechoslovakia. III. Part (1918-39), Prague 1987, p. 465 Specific negotiations on the use of airspace of Romania, however, took place in early September 1938 to Romanians when they finally agreed well with the passage of 100,000 soldiers of the Red Army, aerospace Soviet aircraft could benefit from 25 September 1938 See Pavel Šrámek a team, when he died, so honestly - Czechoslovak ...;
The first issue of the Kurucz newspaper Mercurius Hungaricus issued by Count Antal Esterházy in 1705, the second year in May, the August number Mercurius was released under the name Mercurius Hungaricus; Between 1914-18 he studied at the Faculty of Theology in Uzhgorod Lt. Col. clergy Violand Paul Ondrejkovič; Act on the Autonomy of Ruthenia was adopted 22.10.1938. President of the Autonomous Government A. Voloshin asked parliament to the constitutional name of Ruthenia (resp. Podkarpatoruske earth) remained unchanged. Identification of Carpathian Ukraine, promoted pro-German minister of the autonomous government J. Révay. De The definitive name should be determined at a meeting of the Landtag 15.03.1939; Battalion commander SOS 37 Uzhgorod (Large Berezný) Colonel Ota Francl; Battalion commander SOS 38 Chust Colonel Antonin Zeman ; Although the Republic was in state of peace with neighboring states, fell in battle with Germany, Poland and Hungary at least 171 members of the Czechoslovak Armed Forces and SOS and 404 were wounded; On 21.09.1939 was the President of the Romanian Government Armand Calinescu assassination attempt which was followed by the summary execution of its actors ; First comes of Šariš-Zemplín county Štefan Haššík, vnímal rusínsku otázku viac ako sociálny problém a k politickým a kultúrnym požiadavkám Rusínov sa staval negatívne ; The division of Czechoslovakia. federation of two states 01.01.1993 frustrate efforts to reconnect Ruthenia to Czechoslovakia ;
Sources: William Kamenický ; helmsman Messing T-V ČSPD ; Captain Alexander Oberta ČSPD ; Proceedings of Carpathian Ruthenia 1936 Bratislava ; Jindřich Marek, Hraničářská Calvary ; Military History Institute in Bratislava; VHA Trnava ; VÚA Prague ; director of the oil company "Unirea" Alfred George Gardyne de Chastelain ; Colonel tank. Aladar II Ondrejkovič ; ďalejslúžiaci Koloman Bonkalo ; ing. Tibor Ondi. ; Mr Peter Petrulák ; Almanac AMV 2/2004 Jiřina Dvořáková ; Annales historici Presovienses No 1 2011.pdf - Prešov univerzity ;
Maria Tanase Un tsigan avea o casa ; Lume, Lume ;